Published On: Fri, May 26th, 2017

Gold -All about Gold and its atomic Characterstics

Gold

Au
Atomic Number 79
Atomic Mass 196.966569
Atomic radius 0.134
Ionization energy 889
Electronic config 2,8,18,32,18,1
Principal Valency +2
Density g/cm3 19.32
Melting point oC 1064.18
Boiling point oC 2856
Type of Element Metal
Electronegativity 2.4
Appearance Yellow solid
Block d-block
Period 6
Group 11
No of Isotopes 37
Occurrence Free and combine
Abundance in ppm 0.004
Year of Discovery N/A
INTRODUCTION
Gold is a soft, dense, bright yellow metallic element. It is the most malleable and ductile of all the metals in its pure form. It can easily be beaten or hammered to a thickness of 0.000013 cm, and 29 g could be drawn into a wire 100 km (62 mi) long.
Gold has a high luster and a good conductor of heat and electricity. It is extremely inactive. It is unaffected by air, heat, moisture, and most solvents. It will, however, dissolve in aqueous mixtures containing various halogens such as chlorides, bromides, or some iodides.
EXTRACTION
It occur as a free element or extract in the process of its constituent ore
OXIDATION STATES
+5,+4,+3,+2,+1,-1,-2 (amphoteric)
ELEMENT CATEGORY MAJOR SOURCE
Copper / coinage Group Quartz veins, Electrum, Gold amalgam
EXAMPLES OF COMPOUND PRESENT
Potassium gold cyanide
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE
* Gold is used in dentistry and radioisotopes of gold are used in biological research and in the treatment of cancer.
* Due to its relative rarity, gold became used as currency and as a basis for international monetary transactions.
* Precipitate of finely divided gold and stannic hydroxide formed by the interaction of auric chloride and stannous chloride, is used in coloring ruby glass.
* Gold is mostly used for jewelry due to its value, beauty and resistance to corrosion.

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