||1,91,791 sq. km
History and Geography
Karnataka has a recorded history of more than 2,000 years. Apart from its subjection to the rule of Nandas, Mauryas and the Satavahanas, Karnataka came to have indigenous dynasties like the Kadambas of Banavasi and the Gangas from the middle of the 4th century AD. The world renowned Gomateshwara monolith at Sharavanabelagola was installed by a Ganga minister Chavundaraya. The Chalukyas of Badami (500-735 AD) reigned over a wider area, from the Narmada to the Kaveri from the days of Pulikeshi II (609-642 AD) who even defeated the mighty Harshavardhana of Kanauj. This dynasty created fine, everlasting and the most beautiful monuments at Badami, Aihole and Pattadakal, both structural and rock cut. Aihole has been one of the cradles of temple architecture in the country.
The Rashtrakutas (753-973 AD) of Malkhed who succeeded them heaped tributes on the rulers of Kanauj successively in the so-called ‘Age of Imperial Kanauj’. Kannada literature developed during this period. Outstanding Jain scholars of India lived in their court. The Chalukyas of Kalyana (973 AD to 1189 AD) and their feudatories, the Hoysalas of Halebidu built exquisite temples, encouraged literature and various fine arts. Noted jurist Vijnaneshwara (work: Mitakshara) lived at Kalyana. The great religious leader Basaveshwara was a minister at Kalyana. Vijayanagar Empire (1336-1646) patronised and fostered indigenous traditions and encouraged arts, religion and literature in Sanskrit, Kannada, Telugu and Tamil. Overseas trade flourished.
The Bahamani Sultans (Capital: Gulbarga, later Bidar) and the Bijapur Adilshahis raised fine Indo-Saracenic buildings and encouraged Urdu and Persian literature. Advent of the Portuguese resulted in the introduction of new crops (Tobacco, Maize, Chillies, Groundnut, potato, etc). After the fall of the Peshwa (1818) and Tipu (1799), Karnataka came under British rule. Christian missionaries introduced English education and printing during the 19th century. Revolution in transport, communication and industries was ushered in. The urban middle-class emerged.
Mysore dynasty initiated and helped industrialisation and cultural growth. Freedom Movement was followed by the movement for the unification of Karnataka. After Independence, the Mysore State was created in 1953, wherein all the Kannada dominant areas under different dispensations were unified and the enlarged Mysore state carved in 1956 and was renamed Karnataka in 1973.
Karnataka State is situated between 11031′ and 18014′ north latitudes and 74012′ and 78010′
Forestry and Wildlife
The Forest department manages about 20.15% of the geographical area of the State. Forests have been classified as reserved forests, protected forests, unclassified forests, Villages forests, and private forests. There are 5 National Parks and 23 Wildlife sanctuaries. To overcome shortage of fuel wood, fodder and timber, degraded forests and waste lands are being developed. Emphasis is also being laid on the conservation, protection and development of the fragile eco-system of the Western Ghats. Several Wildlife protection schemes such as Project Tiger and Project Elephant are being implemented with the Central assistance. The concept of Joint Forest Planning and Management applied to the 2 externally aided projects viz., DFID and JBIS has resulted in village forest planning and management through establishment of Village Forest Committees. Japan Bank for International Cooperation has approved a new scheme called Karnataka Sustainable Forest Management and Bio-diversity project and it is being implemented from 2005-06 to 2012-13 throughout Karnataka.
The State has 66% rural population and 55.60 per cent of workers are agricultural labourers. The State has 60% (114 lakh ha) cultivable land and 72% of the cultivable area is rainfed; only 28% is under irrigation. The state has 10 Agro climatic Zones. The Red soil constitutes major soil type, followed by Black soil. The net sown area of the state constituted 51.7% of the total land. During 2007-08, food grain production is anticipated to be 117.35 lakh metric tons against the target of 119.70 lakh metric ton.
Karnataka is one of the major milk producers and the Karnataka Milk Federation has 21 dairy processing plants with a capacity of 26.45 lakh litres a day and 42 chilling centres having 14.60 lakh litres of chilling capacity.
Horticulture crops are grown in an area of 16.80 lakhs hectares and the produces amount to 101 lakh tons. The Union Government has earmarked Rs. 171.29 crores for Karnataka under National Horticulture Mission.
Major and Medium Irrigation
28% of the cultivable land in the state is under irrigation. During 2006-07, 23.21 hectares of land was covered by major and medium irrigation and 9.93 lakh hectares was covered by minor irrigation, constituting a total of 33.14 lakh hectares of irrigated area.
Karnataka was the pioneer in establishing hydroelectric projects in the country. Today, Karnataka has 7222.91 Power Generation Installed capacity and 31229 Million Units of Electricity was generated in 2007-08.
Karnataka State continues its unassailable lead in the IT sector, recording software exports of Rs. 48,700 crores, during 2006-07. For 2007-08 upto November-07 the export was Rs. 24450 crores. It is expected to grow by 25% over previous year’s achievements. The recent report by Nasscom has recognised Manglore and Mysore among the fastest growing IT cities in the country.
Karnataka State and Bangaluru city in particular have become the largest bio-lusters in the country. During 2006-07 three projects were cleared through SLSWA with an investment of Rs. 535.50 crores. The value of Biotech exports was 215 Million US$.
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Source: India 2010 – A Reference Annual